It is an inflammatory arthritis that is caused by high levels of uric acid in the blood. This can result in sudden and severe episodes of pain, tenderness, redness, warmth and swelling. [1]


  • Family history.

  • Gender: seen more in males.

  • Age.

  • Diet: eating excessive red meats and shellfish.

  • Excessive alcohol or soft drinks.

  • Obesity.

  • Recent surgery or trauma.

  • Medications such as thiazide diuretic or low-dose aspirin.

  • Other medical conditions such as

    • uncontrolled high blood pressure, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart and kidney disease.



  • Excessive intake of foods which contain purine such as red meats, organ meats and seafoods as well as excessive intake of alcohol especially beer, and beverages which contain fructose sugar.

  • This purine is converted to uric acid in the body which dissolves in the blood and is removed by the kidneys into the urine.

  • High levels of uric acid can cause a build-up in the body which can lead to urate crystals forming.

  • These urate crystals can accumulate in your joints and cause inflammation which then can cause sudden and intense pain.



 *Occur suddenly and often at night*

  • Severe joint pain: often on the big joint of the big toe, however, it can occur on any joint. Other common sites are the elbow, knees, ankles, wrists and fingers.

  • Persistent discomfort.

  • Redness and swelling.

  • Decreased range of movement of the affected joint.



  • Recurrent gout

  • Kidney stones



  • Weight loss.

  • Regular exercise.

  • Reduce intake of high purine foods, such as, organ meats, seafood and shellfish, red meats and salty foods.

  • Reduce alcohol intake and fructose sweetened beverages.

  • Get protein from low-fat dairy products.

  • Follow a healthy diet - ask your doctor.

  • Talk to the doctor about taking medication for gout therapy.


  1. Mcintosh, J. [Internet]. Everything you need to know about gout. United Kingdom: Healthline Media; [Updated 2017 Nov 28; cited 2019 Aug 14]. Available from: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/144827.php.

  2. Mayo Clinic Staff [Internet]. Gout. America: Mayo Clinic; [updated 2019 May 01; cited 2019 Aug 14]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gout/symptoms-causes/syc-20372897.

  3. Arthritis Foundation [Internet]. What is Gout?. America: Arthritis Foundation national; [updated 2019; cited 2019 Aug 14]. Available from: https://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/gout/what-is-gout.php.

  4. Health Library [Internet]. Lifestyle changes to manage gout. America: Winchester Hospital; [updated 2017; cited 2019 Aug 14]. Available from: https://www.winchesterhospital.org/health-library/article?id=19539.

  5. Gonzales, E. [Internet]. All you need to know about Gout. Philippines: Manila Bulletin; [updated 2017 May 16; cited 2019 Sep 11]. Available from: https://lifestyle.mb.com.ph/2017/05/16/all-you-need-to-know-about-gout/.

  6. Creaky Joints [Internet]. 7 Gout Symptoms You Might Be Ignoring. New York: Creaky Joints; [cited 2019 Sep 11]. Available from: https://creakyjoints.org/symptoms/gout-symptoms/.


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